Thursday, December 5, 2019
A Man On The Moon Essay A Man on the MoonApollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first human beings to walk on the Moon. The United States and more over the world, reveres astronauts like Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong for walking on the Moon. But if all we do is remember their moonwalk, then we will have missed the most important mission objectives. Indeed, there is more to begotten from the Apollo Space Program than just an edge in the space race. There is a high set of values to be exemplified. What happened on July 20, 1969, was undoubtedly one of mankinds greatest achievements. Just eight years earlier, in May 1961, John Kennedy had challenged the nation to landing a man on the Moon and return him safely to the Earth by decades end (Chaikin, 1.) The purpose was simple: Space was the new battleground of the Cold War, and the Soviet Union was in the lead when in April 1961, when Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the earth. This was an embarrassment for the Kennedy administration, save the Bay of Pigs (Chaikin, 2.)Some 400,000 Americans in government, industry, and academia formed the teams of Project Apollo, the largest peacetime effort in history (Chaikin, iii.) For the better part of a decade they labored to make Kennedys vision a reality. Through teamwork and an iron work ethic, these people all reached for the Moon. Finally, one July Sunday in 1969, the world listened, spellbound, as Armstrong and Aldrin descended in their lunar module Eagle toward the pockmarked surface of the Moons Sea of Tranquility. With only 20 seconds of fuel left before the mandatory abort limit, Eagle touched down safelyand on Earth, 400,000 people celebrated their triumph (Chaikin, 200.)Hours later, a television audience estimated at 600 million saw Neil Armstrong take his one giant leap for mankind, followed moments later by Buzz Aldrin (Chaikin, 209.) Together, the two astronauts took photographs, collected rock samples, and planted the American Flag on the ancient dust of the Sea of Tranquility. Two human beings were walking on another world. All of their selflessness, determination, and courage had paid off. When Armstrong, Aldrin, and Michael Collins splashed down in the Pacific four days later, the United States had completed its commitment to Kennedys challengeand won the race to the Moon. Five more landings followed Apollo 11, each more complex than the last, all dedicated to lunar exploration, to pushing our limits. It is now impossible to imagine the sense of hugeness that must have accompanied Kennedys challenge. But optimism was one of Apollos key ingredients: It fueled our dreams and sent us to the Moon. Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldine were the first humans walk on the Moon. The world needs heroes like astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong (Apollogies to the other 399,997 or so others who made the Manned Lunar Program a success.) But if all we do is remember their moonwalk, then we will have failed to live up to the example that they have set for us, through self sacrifice, determination, hard work, optimism, honor, courage, and commitment. Indeed, there is more to begotten from the Apollo Space Program than just a W in the space race. There is a high set of values to be mastered, and some very giant leaps to follow.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Role of Greek Gods In the Illiad With our view of God, it can sometimes be difficult to comprehend the actions and thinking of the Greek deities. The Christian God does not tend to take such an active role in the affairs of people's lives, where, on the other hand, the Greeks regarded direct involvement by the gods as a daily, uncontrollable part of life. Needless to say, divine intervention was a major variable in the equation of Homer's Iliad. The gods picked who they would favour for different reasons. Except Zeus: As the symbol of supreme authority and justice, he makes judgement calls as to the other gods' involvement in the war, remains impartial, and doesn't seem to get caught up in picking favourites. Even when his own son, Sarpedon, was about to die, Zeus chose to let the outcome go unaltered. On the other hand, Zeus's wife, Hera, displayed the more typical actions of a god. After Paris, a Trojan, judged Aphrodite the fairest over Hera, and, after her daughter Hebe was replaced as cupbearer to the gods by a young Trojan boy, she was quite resentful towards Troy and its people. Obviously she sided with the Greeks and would stop at no length to express her will. Scheming and manipulating she even dared to trick her husband, King of the Gods. Hera, along with Athena, who was also passed over by Paris, is seen as the chief divine aid to the Greeks. Being the god of the sea, Poseidon was another strong supporter of the ocean-faring Greeks. Whenever Zeus turned his back Poseidon tried to help the Greeks in the fight. Poseidon felt that he was somewhat Zeus's equal as his brother, but recognizing Zeus's authority and experience, he looked to Zeus as an elder. There were also Gods who favoured the Trojan side of the conflict. Both Apollo and Artemis, twin brother and sister, gave aid to the city of Troy. Although Artemis takes a rather minor role, Apollo, perhaps angered by Agamemmnon's refusal to ransom Khryseis, the daughter of one of his priests and was constantly changing the course of the war in favour of the Trojans. Responsible for sending plague to the Greeks, Apollo was the first god to make an appearance in the Iliad. Also, mainly because Apollo and Artemis were on the Trojan side, their mother, Leto, also helped the Trojans. Aphrodite, obviously supporting Paris's judgement, sided with the Trojans. Although she was insignificant on the battlefield, Aphrodite was successful in convincing Ares, her lover and the god of war, to help the Trojans. One view of the gods' seemingly constant intervention in the war was that they were just setting fate back on the right course. For instance, when Patroklos was killed outside of Troy, Apollo felt no guilt for his doings. It had already been decided that Patroklos would not take Troy, he should never have disobeyed Achilles in the first place. As a god, he was just setting fate on a straight line. Achilles laid blame on Hektor and the Trojans. He did not even consider accusing Apollo, who never came into question, although he was primarily responsible for the kill. Apollo's part in the matter was merely accepted as a natural disaster or illness would be today. This general acceptance of a god's will is a recurring trend throughout the poem. A prime example of this trend is in book XXIV. Achilles, angry over the death of Patroklos brutally disgraced Hektor's body. Tethering Hektor's corpse through the ankles, Achilles dragged him around Patroklos's tomb every day for twelve days. This barbaric treatment was uncalled for and displeased the gods greatly. Achilles mother, Thetis, was sent by Zeus to tell him to ransom the body back to the Trojans. One may think Achilles would be possessive of the body and attempt to put up a fuss as he did before with Agamemmnon in Book I. But, Achilles showed humility and respect for the gods and immediately agreed to ransom the body to the Trojans, showing that all mortals, even god-like Achilles, were answerable to the gods. This ideology would seem to give the gods a sort of unlimited freedom on earth,
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Pronouncing the Spanish W Unlike most letters of the Spanish alphabet, the w (officially called the uve doble and sometimes ve doble, doble ve or doble u) does not have a fixed sound. That is because the w is native to neither Spanish nor to Latin, from which Spanish evolved. In other words, the w appears only in words of foreign origin. As a result, the w is usually pronounced similarly to its pronunciation in the words original language. Since English is the language most commonly used as a foreign source of words in modern Spanish, the w is most frequently pronounced like its common pronunciation in English, the sound the letter has in words such as water and witch. If you come across a Spanish word with a w and dont know how its pronounced, you can usually give it the English w pronunciation and be understood. It isnt uncommon for native Spanish speakers to add a g sound (like the g in go but much, much softer) at the beginning of the w sound. For example, waterpolo is often pronounced as if it were spelled guaterpolo, and hawaiano (Hawaiian) is often pronounced as if it were spelled haguaiano or jaguaiano. This tendency to pronounce the w as if it were gw varies with region and among individual speakers. In words of Germanic origin other than English, the Spanish w is often pronounced as if it were a b or v (the two letters have the same sound). In fact, this is often true even for some words that come from English; wter (toilet) is often pronounced as if it were spelled vter. An example of a word usually pronounced with the b/v sound is wolframio, a word for the metal tungsten. For some words that have been part of Spanish for several generations or more, alternative spellings have been developed. For example, wter is often spelled as vter, whisky (whiskey) is often spelled as gÃ ¼isqui, and watio (watt) is often vatio. Changes in spelling are uncommon with recently imported words. Reference sources used for this lesson include the Diccioinario panhispnico de dudas (2005) published by the Spanish Royal Academy.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Macroeconomic - Essay Example Climate change may no longer be ignored and new policy points to carbon tax to deter carbon emissions. Immigration is another pressing issue where major reform may soon be in the works. The Democratic from Latinos signify a possible policy change in their favour. Finally, Mideast tension is a complicated problem where the author said that Ã¢â¬Å"ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest second-term job is avoiding World War IIIÃ¢â¬ (49). A fiscal policy that promotes revenue generation through taxes paves the way for government to have an increased budget for government expenditure and avoid budget deficit. Federal expenditures account for Ã¢â¬Å"(1) pension and income security, (2) national defense, (3) health and (4) interest on the public debtÃ¢â¬ (McConnell and Brue 85). The taxes that may be accumulated from carbon tax will address the prevalent environmental issues and these funds will most likely be used to promote environmental measures in avoidance of natural disasters. Allowing a lenient immigration policy is perceived to reduce employment opportunities to resident citizens. However, this issue is more often a matter of social justice and existing illegal immigrants settle for unsatisfactory working conditions. An increase in population concurrently leads to a parallel increase in federal expenditures. The same assessment is true for engaging in war which accounts for large budget deficits and public de bt since it reallocates economic resources for war goods such as military spending for their personnel and armaments (ibid
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Information based decision making - Assignment Example Again, to retain the competitive position in the market, companies have to analyse the strategy used by its competitors and thus respective changes should be made in ones business strategy. With growing inter-relation in all these factors, the decision making process is getting complex day by day. In the contemporary business environment, the management is hardly left with time to conduct an in-depth analysis while making a decision. Therefore, the management prefer to use an information based decision making model. These models make the process of decision making more systematic and transparent. One may argue that such information based methods of decision making requires a lot of managerial time and effort. However, in the era of information technology one can easily extract required data from the central database and using the computer, complex calculations can be done within fraction of minutes. On the contrary, management can also determine beforehand all the possible negative c onsequences if the decision taken proves at any point of time. In the below give section, information based decision making concept as well as some of the commonly used models will be discussed in-depth. Nature of data and information The success of an information based decision making process highly depends on the quality as well as on the authenticity of the data used. Therefore, while developing the decision based information model, attention should be devoted towards nature of data and information to be used. Generally, while deciding about the nature, one should understand the core reason for which the data will be used. It means the nature of data should be finalised after considering the final use of the result derived from it. For example, if a company is developing an information based decision making process for its new project, then it will prefer to collected financial information to check the cost incurred in the production process. Again, quantitative as well as qualit ative data regarding the operational activities will be collected and used to analyse progress of the project. There are certain other factors that need to be ascertained while finalising the nature of data. The team that developers the decision making model should be conscious about authenticity and reliability of the data. A small little alteration in the data can disturb whole of the decision making process. For example, if the data regarding number of units sold in a particular region gets distorted (either willingly or unwillingly), it will effect whole of the marketing decision making model. Considering the wrong data about the sales figure, the marketing manager will provide a misguiding sales forecast for the next month. On the basis of this wrong forecast, the production department will set its schedule and it will pass this information to the purchase department to supply the required material. As a result the schedule of the purchase department will also get disturbed. In general, whole of the monthly schedule of the organisation will get disturbed and
Monday, November 18, 2019
Criminological Theory - The Virginia Tech Massacre - Essay Example Popular Medias like television, film, video games and comic books have played a great role in increasing the violence among the young generation. Modern films are filled with scenes of violence; murders, rapes etc. Video games and other entertainment software include various aspects that encourage children and minors to engage in various types of violence. When children see their comic hero killing several people, they feel murder as a simple activity and dare to carry it out in schools and families. They resort to various forms of violence. Youngsters simply shot down their school and college mates for no reason. Violence is a hobby of the modern world. Pressure and stress can take adolescents to violence as they are not mentally strong to deal with the struggles in life. Public schooling is notorious for the pressure it puts on students. Students are forced to wear the Ã¢â¬ËrightÃ¢â¬â¢ clothes, do the Ã¢â¬ËparticularÃ¢â¬â¢ assignment, and are pressured to be interested in v arious things which they are not naturally interested in. Individualism is ignored in this type of environment. Children are pressured to conform to certain rigid standards and rule. This rigidity is strong enough to disturb the psychological stability of children. They are increasingly affected by stress and anxiety that are caused by the pressures and work loads in their schools. This increased stress and anxiety creates undesirable behavior in children that lead to incidents like school shooting. Adolescents are highly vulnerable to anxiety and depression. In today's high-pressure corporate world, anxiety is a common feeling. People naturally become anxious. The emotional price of staying on top is always very high. Anxiety is unavoidable in such circumstances. As the person reaches the highest level of anxiety, a failure or an unexpected event can make him easily depressed. Anxiety disturbs the normal thoughts of an individual. The present world is the world of competitions. Edu cation and career filed have become highly competitive. Ã¢â¬ËSurvival of the fittestÃ¢â¬â¢ is the theme of the modern academic field. Even little kids are out to achieve something in life. This generation is characterized by its excessive, exaggerated and disproportionate anxiety. A silly disappointment would finally push children into violence, depression, suicide and various other actions. Pressure and stress play a major role in incidents like school shooting. Adolescents are involved in majority of the school violence cases. Problems faced by the adolescents makes them resort of violence. They drink most, smoke most and have sex at very early age. They hate schools, neglect their health, and are least satisfied in their life. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have any fellowship with their parents and hate their classmates. They lack good company and guidance. Adolescents are highly vulnerable to drug abuse and various other problems. Almost one third of the juveniles aged 12-to 20 use alco hol in US. According to the estimates nearly 11 million children or juveniles are alcohol consumers. According to the study conducted by the federal Substances Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, nearly children and juveniles consume 20% of the alcoholic drinks in United States. More than 7000 children in United States start drinking alcohol everyday. All these culminate in events
Friday, November 15, 2019
An Essay on the Magna Carta The Magna Carta is widely considered to be one of the most important documents of all time, and is seen as being fundamental to how law and justice is viewed in countries all over the world. Prior to the Magna Carta being created there was no standing limit on royal authority in England. This meant that the King could exploit his power in whatever way he saw fit, as he was not subject to any laws. This paper will examine the Magna Carta, the reasons for its creation, its impact on England and whether it fulfilled its purpose or not. I will be making the argument as to why it has gone above and beyond its original intentions and has over time paved the way for liberty. The most important part of the Magna Carta is clause 39, and is as follows Ã¢â¬Å"No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or striped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled. Nor will we proceed with force against him. Except by the lawful judgement of his equals or by the law of the land. To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice.Ã¢â¬ Now given at the time this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t considered particularly important but over time it became interpreted as guaranteeing individual rights and liberty. This has also been exported into other nationÃ¢â¬â¢s constitutions, particularly Western countries namely the United States in the form of the Bill of Rights. The Magna Carta finds its roots in early 13th century England under the rule of King John. Traditionally considered to be a ruthless, authoritarian king, John had a myriad of issues facing England when he took the throne and it seems that much of the resentment towards him is unwarranted. It is worth noting that England was practically bankrupt due to JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, King Richard incurring exuberant costs from going on Crusade and later ransom from captivity at the hands of the Holy Roman Empire. After RichardsÃ¢â¬â¢s death due to injuries sustained while fighting in France, King John faced adversity from the French and English nobility who had supported JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s nephew the young Arthur of Brittany. When Arthur was killed in an altercation while under the custody of John, many implicated John in the killing. Soon afterward the French attacked and took Normandy from English hands. As a result of this John began to raise taxes to build an army to re-take Normandy . The end result of the war was disastrous, the English army was left in ruin and country had all but run out of money. Upon returning to England King John was faced with rebellion from his barons and found that he had very few allies left. In 1215 these baronial rebels forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, literally meaning the Ã¢â¬Å"Great CharterÃ¢â¬ . These 25 barons sought to outline the unwritten customs that had in effect governed the country for centuries and put them into written law that would have to be observed by the king. Now at the time of its inception the charter wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t meant to be a principle of law that would apply to everyone, it was simply a way that the ruling elite of the time, the barons could put some limits to the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s power. The charter itself was really the product of difficult back and forth negotiations between King Johns government and the barons, both really wanting to avoid civil war and trying to find a compromise. The en shrinement into law of feudal custom and the operation of the legal system, one which even the king would have to abide by was the driving force behind most of the clauses. Once brought into law it was made clear that certain aspects were to be made more important and are considered to be the main reason why the barons wanted such legislation in the first place. The biggest issue was the oppressive taxation that King John imposed to fight against the French. Despite making significant advancements in the revenue system within England there had been a general sense of growing discontent with the arbitrary way the royalty imposed heavy taxes. In truth there was little John could do given how the coffers had been drained from his aforementioned brother and from his father, Henry IIÃ¢â¬â¢s forays into France. As such it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t very surprising that more periods of high taxation was all that was needed to incite the barons to revolt and force John into signing. The charter made it clear that the monarchy would have to follow some set of rules regarding taxation and other customs according to the nobles. These included the protection of the English church, the special significance of London and the rights accompanying its status. Others are concerned with family law, transportation across England and what I see as being the most important the clauses dealing with justice. Again I will refer back to clause 39 which is interpreted today as being concerned with what is known as habeas corpus. The immediate impact of this clause was not felt by a great many people, for at the time it was of course intended for those of high privilege. As such at the time it was more of a settlement between the royal head of state and EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful families. The barons wanted a kind of safeguard against a reckless king having seen far to much of what can happen when one spends with abandon as many kings before John had, while not wanting to go so far as to repl ace the king himself. The Magna Carta itself was in a rather precarious situation as only weeks after being signed by King John it was denounced by pope Innocent III as having been forced on the king, and John was happy to agree and renounce it as well. This lead to the barons inviting the French king, Philip to invade and take the crown. A civil war ensued and the fate of the charter was in question. The rebellion ended with the death of King John in 1216, this left the throne to his son 9 year old Henry III. The nobles agreed that young Henry should be the one to take the throne, as despite being the son of the king whom they had despised, they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t about to abandon the lines of succession with regard to heredity. The Magna Carta was reaffirmed by Henry with the key focus being on a good reliable government led by the king. Eventually Henry began to deviate from the guidelines the charter had laid out for him and once again the barons went into open rebellion. The reb ellion was put down but only on the condition that the king would adhere to the charter once again. This is important as it set a precedent by which other English kings could not simply ignore the Magna Carta and do as they pleased, out of risking open rebellion. The charter comes in prominence again with the reign of Henry IIIÃ¢â¬â¢s son, Edward I. Once again frustration mounted over the heavy tax burden the king set upon the country and Edward had to admit that he was in fact bound by the Magna Carta, thus giving concession to the nobles. By this time the charter had become prominent enough that certain clauses pertaining to individual liberty were become common practice. As free men in England could enjoy the rights set forth in the Magna Carta. The structure of the charter is as such that it has an open-ended nature allowing for small tweaks and revisions at times when it is warranted. Over time we see events of great importance in England with the Magna Carta being the backbone of the movements. This is apparent with attempts to limit the royal powers of kings following Edward I. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the late 14th century do we see however the charter being used in such an all-encompassing way. Under King Edward III the Magna Carta was proclaimed to be the law of the land and that no other law present or future could challenge it. We also see the first instances of the Magna Carta affecting general law, including the expansion of clause 39 making it in effect the due process that all men would be condition to if subject to the justice system. It is around this time that we see the gradual shift from the charter serving only the purpose of giving power to the nobles against the crown, to a general defense of human liberty in England. This can only be seen as a good thing as until this time the charter by and large only served the privileged few. The common people were subject to mistreatment at the hands of those in power in England for a very long time, the idea that they now have rights was an entirely new concept but one that gradually began to take hold, as the Magna Carta was reinterpreted. When taking into account the Magna Carta the role the English church played is one of great import. It is explicitly stated in the charter that the church be given full freedom and unimpaired liberty, the fact that this is mentioned long before any mention of liberties for the freemen of England is important to take into account. Of course it is hard to say that King John considered these clauses a concession, as the church already possessed many liberties given their unique position within England. The church had an expectation that they could practice their spiritual tasks without interference from the king. Society in this period had many dependencies on the church and as such it made sense for the king to observe the freedoms the church enjoyed rather than infringe upon them and threaten the peace that the church held in the kingdom. King John seemed to regard the freedom of the church as something of paramount import in England, even deferring to the pope on several occa sions. The evolution of the Magna Carta can also be attributed to the privileged status of the church itself. The type of freedom that those within the church enjoyed was outlined in the charter and a connection was made between this and the clauses dealing with the freemen, or the individual. This is important because without the church there would simply be no precedent for liberty in England. The Magna Carta then can be seen as a very important step towards liberty, especially considering the time when it was written. Its evolution from a document which was originally intended to force King John to consult the nobility on issues pertaining to taxes and justice in the realm, to the cornerstone of individual liberty is of great importance. The novel view that a king should be respectful of the rights of the nobility and church would be extrapolated into one in which all people regardless of birthright would be protected by law. As such I would say that yes the Magna Carta has indeed served its purpose and then some. Its continuing influence can be seen even today, enshrined in constitutions all over the western world. The gradual shift in England towards individual rights and movement of government towards democracy can be attributed to the Magna Carta. As because individuals gained more rights including the common people this lead to the rise in the democratic process, including the creation of the English parliament where commoners could participate in government. Looking back however on its inception it is hard to say that the barons really had a specific goal in mind with the Magna CartaÃ¢â¬â¢s creation. The extent to which King John was an evil, tyrannical king seem to have been blown way out of proportion, given the circumstances I donÃ¢â¬â¢t see how he could have changed much of what he did during his reign. The idea that the barons were these visionaries thinking well ahead of their time is laughable, and seems more likely that they were simply distrustful of King Johns rule and were looking out for their own short-term interests. That is not to say of course that there werenÃ¢â¬â¢t some good ideals enshrined within the charter as it is apparent that there were, only that the majority of what was actually included seemed to be a result of various motivations on the part of upset barons. One of the most important aspects of the Magna Carta, and its most enduring is the idea of due process. Now granted due process and the subsequent trial by jury were not of any great importance to the barons at the time of the charters writing, although given the framework it is hard not to say that a few of them werenÃ¢â¬â¢t thinking ahead of what may become of it. This malleable framework provided just what subsequent generations needed to reinterpret certain clauses within the charter and make them take on a more general meaning apply to a much larger spectrum. The effects of continued reinterpretations have been profound on western society, first in the form of Habeas Corpus which served to strengthen what due process had already given the general populace. The point being that after Magna Carta and all its various iterations people had a series of natural rights and liberty by law, these influences have helped shape constitutions and how countries are governed today.  Jenkins, Ã¢â¬Å"A Short History of England,Ã¢â¬ 65 72  Ã¢â¬Å"Magna Carta 1215Ã¢â¬  Warren Ã¢â¬Å"King JohnÃ¢â¬ 174 181  Jenkins Ã¢â¬Å"A Short History of EnglandÃ¢â¬ 65 72  Warren Ã¢â¬Å"King JohnÃ¢â¬ 76 93  Ã¢â¬Å"Roger of Wendover:Runneymede 1215Ã¢â¬ last modified June 1997  DanzigerGillingham Ã¢â¬Å"1215 The Year of Magna CartaÃ¢â¬ 255 277  Jenkins Ã¢â¬Å"A Short History of EnglandÃ¢â¬ 57 65  Thorne E. Samuel et al Ã¢â¬Å"The Great CharterÃ¢â¬ 16 17  DanzigerGillingham Ã¢â¬Å"1215 The Year of Magna CartaÃ¢â¬ 137 153  Ã¢â¬Å"Magna CartaÃ¢â¬ 1215  Hindley Ã¢â¬Å"The Book of Magna CartaÃ¢â¬ 193 201